verb (used with object), gauged, gauging.
to determine the exact dimensions, capacity, quantity, or force of; measure.
to appraise, estimate, or judge.
to make conformable to a standard.
to mark or measure off; delineate.
to prepare or mix (plaster) with a definite proportion of plaster of Paris and mortar.
to chip or rub (bricks or stones) to a uniform size or shape.
a standard of measure or measurement.
a standard dimension, size, or quantity.
any device or instrument for measuring, registering measurements, or testing something, especially for measuring a dimension, quantity, or mechanical accuracy: pressure gauge; marking gauge.
a means of estimating or judging; criterion; test.
extent; scope; capacity: trying to determine the gauge of his own strength.
Ordnance. a unit of measure of the internal diameter of a shotgun barrel, determined by the number of spherical lead bullets of a diameter equal to that of the bore that are required to make one pound: a twelve-gauge shotgun.
Railroads. the distance between the inner edges of the heads of the rails in a track, usually 4 feet 8.5 inches (1.4 meters) (standard gauge) but sometimes more (broad gauge) and sometimes less (narrow gauge)
the distance between a pair of wheels on an axle.
the thickness or diameter of various, usually thin, objects, as the thickness of sheet metal or the diameter of a wire or screw.
the fineness of a knitted fabric as expressed in loops per every 1.5 inches (3.8 cm): 15 denier, 60 gauge stockings.
Nautical. the position of one vessel as being to the windward (weather gauge) or to the leeward (lee gauge) of another vessel on an approximately parallel course.
Building Trades. the portion of the length of a slate, tile, etc., left exposed when laid in place.
the amount of plaster of Paris mixed with mortar or common plaster to hasten the set.
Also, especially in technical use, gage.

1375–1425; late Middle English < Old North French (French jauge) < Germanic

gaugeable, adjective
gaugeably, adverb
misgauge, verb (used with object), misgauged, misgauging.
multigauge, adjective
regauge, verb (used with object), regauged, regauging.
self-gauging, adjective
ungauged, adjective

2. evaluate, assess, value, calculate. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
gauge or gage (ɡeɪdʒ)
1.  to measure or determine the amount, quantity, size, condition, etc, of
2.  to estimate or appraise; judge
3.  to check for conformity or bring into conformity with a standard measurement, dimension, etc
4.  a standard measurement, dimension, capacity, or quantity
5.  any of various instruments for measuring a quantity: a pressure gauge
6.  any of various devices used to check for conformity with a standard measurement
7.  a standard or means for assessing; test; criterion
8.  scope, capacity, or extent
9.  the diameter of the barrel of a gun, esp a shotgun
10.  the thickness of sheet metal or the diameter of wire
11.  the distance between the rails of a railway track: in Britain 4 ft 8½ in. (1.435 m)
12.  the distance between two wheels on the same axle of a vehicle, truck, etc
13.  nautical the position of a vessel in relation to the wind and another vessel. One vessel may be windward (weather gauge) or leeward (lee gauge) of the other
14.  the proportion of plaster of Paris added to mortar to accelerate its setting
15.  the distance between the nails securing the slates, tiles, etc, of a roof
16.  a measure of the fineness of woven or knitted fabric, usually expressed as the number of needles used per inch
17.  the width of motion-picture film or magnetic tape
18.  See also absolute (of a pressure measurement) measured on a pressure gauge that registers zero at atmospheric pressure; above or below atmospheric pressure: 5 bar gauge
[C15: from Old Northern French, probably of Germanic origin]
gage or gage
[C15: from Old Northern French, probably of Germanic origin]
'gaugeable or gage
'gageable or gage
'gaugeably or gage
'gageably or gage

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

mid-15c., from Anglo-Fr. gauge (mid-14c.), from O.N.Fr. gauger, from gauge "gauging rod," perhaps from Frank. *galgo "rod, pole for measuring" (cf. O.N. gelgja "pole, perch," O.H.G. galgo, English gallows). Related: Gauged; gauging.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
How far his entering the diaconate committed him to clerical life cannot easily
  be gauged.
Scientists haven't fully gauged the threat to animals and people.
But the extent of the damage hadn't been gauged yet.
Psychological distress was gauged by asking the number of days they felt tired,
  run down or unfocused.
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