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community formerly known for mining, Caerphilly county borough, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), Wales, lying in the middle of the River Rhymney valley. Old Gelligaer village is located on the site of a Roman fort, on the ridge-top road northward from Cardiff, but the main settlements of the community, chief among them Bargoed, are villages in the river valley. Some light industry has been established since 1945, but the closing of the last coal mines during the late 20th century brought economic hardship. The locality contains the 8th-century church of St. Cattwg and the 16th-century manor house of Llancaiach. Pop. (2001) 16,537.