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gradient

[grey-dee-uh nt] /ˈgreɪ di ənt/
noun
1.
the degree of inclination, or the rate of ascent or descent, in a highway, railroad, etc.
2.
an inclined surface; grade; ramp.
3.
Physics.
  1. the rate of change with respect to distance of a variable quantity, as temperature or pressure, in the direction of maximum change.
  2. a curve representing such a rate of change.
4.
Mathematics. a differential operator that, operating upon a function of several variables, results in a vector the coordinates of which are the partial derivatives of the function. Symbol: ∇.
Abbreviation: grad.
adjective
5.
rising or descending by regular degrees of inclination.
6.
progressing by walking; stepping with the feet as animals do.
7.
of a type suitable for walking or running, as the feet of certain birds; gressorial.
Origin
1635-1645
1635-45; < Latin gradient- (stem of gradiēns), present participle of gradī to walk, go, equivalent to grad- walk + -i- thematic vowel + -ent- -ent
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples from the web for gradient
  • Wind is the flow of air from areas of high to low pressure down the pressure slope, or gradient.
  • Scientists suspected that the gradient might be related to the effectiveness of mucus as a barrier.
  • Rather, it is the skill gap and steeper gradient that needs to be scaled towards jobs of the future.
  • The gradient of the river-how quickly it drops-helps define the steepness of the sides and the width of the floor.
  • Each time, they increased the pressure in the balloon, thereby decreasing the amount of pressure gradient.
  • The work is derived from the potential energy of the salinity gradient.
  • If there were any hands raised, teach them that stream flow is entirely dependent upon the gradient of the streambed.
  • The number of diets you've tried correlates exactly with the gradient of weight gained over time.
  • Ageing has been a gentle gradient so far, but it is getting steeper.
  • Flattening the gradient cheapens the experience, the relationships, and the people in them.
British Dictionary definitions for gradient

gradient

/ˈɡreɪdɪənt/
noun
1.
Also called (esp US) grade. a part of a railway, road, etc, that slopes upwards or downwards; inclination
2.
Also called (esp US and Canadian) grade. a measure of such a slope, esp the ratio of the vertical distance between two points on the slope to the horizontal distance between them
3.
(physics) a measure of the change of some physical quantity, such as temperature or electric potential, over a specified distance
4.
(maths)
  1. (of a curve) the slope of the tangent at any point on a curve with respect to the horizontal axis
  2. (of a function, f(x, y, z)) the vector whose components along the axes are the partial derivatives of the function with respect to each variable, and whose direction is that in which the derivative of the function has its maximum value. Usually written: grad f, ∇f or ∇f Compare curl (sense 11), divergence (sense 4)
adjective
5.
sloping uniformly
Word Origin
C19: from Latin gradiēns stepping, from gradī to go
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for gradient
n.

"steep slope of a road or railroad," 1835, principally in American English, from grade (n.) by analogy of quotient, etc. It was used 17c. as an adjective, of animals, "characterized by walking;" in that case probably from Latin gradientem, present participle of gradi "to walk."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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gradient in Medicine

gradient gra·di·ent (grā'dē-ənt)
n.

  1. The rate at which a physical quantity, such as temperature or pressure, changes relative to change in a given variable, especially distance.

  2. A series of progressively increasing or decreasing differences in the growth rate, metabolism, or physiological activity of a cell, an organ, or an organism.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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gradient in Science
gradient
  (grā'dē-ənt)   

  1. The degree to which something inclines; a slope. A mountain road with a gradient of ten percent rises one foot for every ten feet of horizontal length.

  2. The rate at which a physical quantity, such as temperature or pressure changes over a distance.

  3. A operator on scalar fields yielding a vector function, where the value of the vector evaluated at any point indicates the direction and degree of change of the field at that point.


The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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