|the borrowing of linguistic forms by one language or dialect from another when both occupy a single geographical or cultural community|
|a collection of maps of a certain area indicating the distribution of various phonological, morphological, lexical, or other features of the dialects of that area|
inference of character from a person's handwriting. The theory underlying graphology is that handwriting is an expression of personality; hence, a systematic analysis of the way words and letters are formed can reveal traits of personality. Graphologists note such elements as the size of individual letters and the degree and regularity of slanting, ornamentation, angularity, and curvature. Other basic considerations are the general appearance and impression of the writing, the pressure of upward and downward strokes, and the smoothness of the writing. For example, analytic graphologists interpret large handwriting as a sign of ambition and small handwriting as a sign of pedantry. Graphologists have cautioned that the validity of handwriting analysis can be subverted by such considerations as myopia and the loss of motor control. In general, the scientific basis for graphological interpretations of personality is questionable. (See also calligraphy; Spencerian penmanship.)
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