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city and port, southwestern Sonora estado (state), Mexico. On a bay of the Gulf of California, at an elevation of 13 feet (4 metres) above sea level, it is surrounded by colourful mountains. The city was established in 1769, and in the 19th century its port became one of the most important in northwestern Mexico. As a result, Guaymas was a strategic prize during the Mexican-American War (1846-48), a filibustering expedition of William Walker (1853-54), the French intervention (1861-67), and the Mexican Revolution (1910-20).