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Ukrainian folk dance originating as a male dance among the Zaporozhian Cossacks but later danced by couples, male soloists, and mixed groups of dancers. In western Ukraine, as the hopak-kolo, it is danced in a closed circle. The hopak has no fixed pattern of steps. Men competitively improvise steps, high leaps, squatting kicks, and turns; women dance simple steps, sway, clap, or circle. Changes of step do not necessarily correspond with the musical metre (24). Composers who have used hopaks in concert music include Semen Hulak-Artemovsky, Mykola Lysenko, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.