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decorative metal plaque fitted to the martingale, a set of straps attached to saddle and bridle that serve to steady a horse's head or check its upward movement. The use of these ornaments is of considerable antiquity, but most English horse brass dates from after 1830. Earlier examples are known, but these are rare. Before 1830 latten, an alloy of brass, was used, the pierced design being cut by hand. Most of the later varieties are of cast brass, sometimes plated. Many were produced in Walsall and Birmingham, particularly in the latter half of the 19th century. Over 1,000 different designs of horse brasses have been recorded, ranging from the early sun flashes, worn on the horse's face, to the later regional and commemorative horse brasses made in the 20th century.