a back that is humped in a convex position.

1690–1700; apparently back formation from humpbacked Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
humpback (ˈhʌmpˌbæk)
1.  another word for hunchback
2.  Also called: humpback whale a large whalebone whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, closely related and similar to the rorquals but with a humped back and long flippers: family Balaenopteridae
3.  a Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, the male of which has a humped back and hooked jaws
4.  (Brit) Also called: humpback bridge a road bridge having a sharp incline and decline and usually a narrow roadway
[C17: alteration of earlier crumpbacked, perhaps influenced by hunchback; perhaps related to Dutch homp lump]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

humpback hump·back (hŭmp'bāk') or hunch·back (hŭnch'-)
See kyphosis.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
Within a few decades, whaling drove the humpback, blue and fin whales to the brink of extinction.
Dolphins are, in fact, more closely related to a beaked whale than a beaked whale is to a humpback.
The bumps on a humpback's flipper prevent the beast from stalling as it turns.
The humpback calf was stranded on the beach for hours before volunteer rescuers
  were able to drag it back to the sea.
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