Jews

Jew

[joo]
noun
1.
one of a scattered group of people that traces its descent from the Biblical Hebrews or from postexilic adherents of Judaism; Israelite.
2.
a person whose religion is Judaism.
3.
a subject of the ancient kingdom of Judah.
adjective
4.
Offensive. of Jews; Jewish.
verb (used with object)
5.
(lowercase) Offensive. to bargain sharply with; beat down in price (often followed by down ).

Origin:
1125–75; Middle English jewe, giu, gyu, ju < Old French juiu, juieu, gyu < Late Latin judēus, Latin jūdaeus < Greek ioudaîos < Aramaic yehūdāi < Hebrew Yəhūdhī, derivative of Yəhūdhāh Judah; replacing Old English iūdēas Jews < Late Latin jūdē(us) + Old English -as plural ending

non-Jew, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
Jew (dʒuː)
 
n
1.  a member of the Semitic people who claim descent from the ancient Hebrew people of Israel, are spread throughout the world, and are linked by cultural or religious ties
2.  a person whose religion is Judaism
 
[C12: from Old French juiu, from Latin jūdaeus, from Greek ioudaios, from Hebrew yehūdī, from yehūdāhJudah]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

Jew
c.1175 (in plural, giwis), from Anglo-Fr. iuw, from O.Fr. giu, from L. Judaeum (nom. Judaeus), from Gk. Ioudaios, from Aramaic jehudhai (Heb. y'hudi "Jew," from Y'hudah "Judah," lit. "celebrated," name of Jacob's fourth son and of the tribe descended from him. Replaced O.E. Iudeas "the Jews." Originally,
"Hebrew of the kingdom of Judah." Jews' harp "simple mouth harp" is from 1584, earlier Jews' trump (1545); the connection with Jewishness is obscure. Jew-baiting first recorded 1853, in ref. to Ger. Judenhetze. In uneducated times, inexplicable ancient artifacts were credited to Jews, based on the biblical chronology of history: e.g. Jews' money (1577) "Roman coins found in England." In Greece, after Christianity had erased the memory of classical glory, ruins of pagan temples were called "Jews' castles."

jew
"to cheat, to drive a hard bargain," 1824, from Jew (n.) (cf. gyp, welsh, etc.). The campaign to eliminate it in early 20c. was so successful that people began to avoid the noun and adj., too, and started using Hebrew instead.
"Now I'll say 'a Jew' and just the word Jew sounds like a dirty word and people don't know whether to laugh or not." [Lenny Bruce (19251966)]
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

Jews definition


The Israelites, particularly after their return from captivity in Babylon about five hundred years before the birth of Jesus; at that time, the Israelites were established as a religious group, founded on the Mosaic law, not simply a national group.

Note: When the Jewish nation was destroyed by the Romans in the year a.d. 70 and the Jews were scattered throughout the world, their religious beliefs and customs allowed them to remain one people.

Jews definition


Adherents of Judaism.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Easton
Bible Dictionary

Jew definition


the name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jer. 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who were called Israelites. During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name, however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation without distinction (Esther 3:6, 10; Dan. 3:8, 12; Ezra 4:12; 5:1, 5). Originally this people were called Hebrews (Gen. 39:14; 40:15; Ex. 2:7; 3:18; 5:3; 1 Sam. 4:6, 9, etc.), but after the Exile this name fell into disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew (2 Cor. 11:22; Phil. 3:5). The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the history of Palestine and with the narratives of the lives of their rulers and chief men. They are now [1897] dispersed over all lands, and to this day remain a separate people, "without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image [R.V. 'pillar,' marg. 'obelisk'], and without an ephod, and without teraphim" (Hos. 3:4). Till about the beginning of the present century [1800] they were everywhere greatly oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but now their condition is greatly improved, and they are admitted in most European countries to all the rights of free citizens. In 1860 the "Jewish disabilities" were removed, and they were admitted to a seat in the British Parliament. Their number in all is estimated at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe. There are three names used in the New Testament to designate this people, (1.) Jews, as regards their nationality, to distinguish them from Gentiles. (2.) Hebrews, with regard to their language and education, to distinguish them from Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language. (3.) Israelites, as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen people of God. "To other races we owe the splendid inheritance of modern civilization and secular culture; but the religious education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone."

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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