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city in Hyogo ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It lies in the lower valley of the Kako River. A prosperous river port during the Tokugawa period (1603-1867), it was industrialized after the opening of the Sanyo Line (railway; 1888) and the Banshu Line (1913). The production of fertilizer and woolen textiles was supplemented after World War II with the establishment of iron, steel, machinery, spinning, and chemical plants. In the hilly area to the north, a large residential district has been developed. Kakogawa is part of the Harima Industrial Zone and is served by the outport of Befu in its southern sector. Pop. (2005) 267,100