But my unilateral declaration of an end to the Kulturkampf was depressingly naive.
The campaign, after all, needs to stroke its still-wary base without openly associating with passionate cries for Kulturkampf.
In other words, he has to run a Kulturkampf campaign, at least to some extent.
Even the Congress of Berlin in 1878 was, to my way of thinking, a mistake, likewise the "Kulturkampf."
The "Kulturkampf," as such, had come to an end before the beginning of my reign.
In the Kulturkampf his position was the exact antithesis to that of Bismarck.
The Chancellor could declare, in 1877, that the Kulturkampf was then at its zenith.
The record of persecution during the first five years of the Kulturkampf is an appalling arraignment of its perpetrators.
The Kulturkampf banished them from their native land and they had to continue their labors in exile.
Their hostility was increased by the Kulturkampf, due to the promulgation in 1870 of the dogma of papal infallibility.
1879, originally in reference to the struggle between the German government and the Catholic Church over control of educational and ecclesiastical appointments, 1872-86, German, literally "struggle for culture," from Kultur + Kampf "combat, fight, struggle," from Latin campus "field, battlefield" (see campus).