[lon-ji-tood-n-l, -tyood-]
of or pertaining to longitude or length: longitudinal measurement.
extending in the direction of the length of a thing; running lengthwise: a thin, longitudinal stripe.
Zoology. pertaining to or extending along the long axis of the body, or the direction from front to back, or head to tail.
pertaining to a research design or survey in which the same subjects are observed repeatedly over a period of time.
a longitudinal framing member, as in the hull of a ship.

1535–45; < Latin longitūdin- (stem of longitūdō; see longitude) + -al1

longitudinally, adverb
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World English Dictionary
longitudinal (ˌlɒndʒɪˈtjuːdɪnəl, ˌlɒŋɡ-)
1.  of or relating to longitude or length
2.  Compare transverse placed or extended lengthways
3.  psychol (of a study of behaviour) carried on over a protracted period of time

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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal (lŏn'jĭ-tōōd'n-əl, -tyōōd'-)
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
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Example sentences
Social scientists who study relational aggression point to a dearth of
  longitudinal data.
It's the first-ever longitudinal study of the little-understood problem.
The lack of longitudinal rigidity led directly to the collapse.
We need longitudinal studies looking at infidelity over the course of people's
  married lives.
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