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in early Christianity, narrow silk band worn over the left forearm, with ends hanging down on each side, and formerly used by clergy when celebrating or assisting at mass. It was about two to four inches wide and three to five feet long. Sometimes heavily embroidered, it was the same colour as the major vestments worn on the occasion. It was the symbol of work and service. The maniple was probably derived from a handkerchief or table napkin used by Romans, which evolved into a ceremonial napkin (mappa) worn by high Roman officials. In the church it was a functional napkin used during the liturgy until the 9th century, when it began changing gradually into a decorative band, which was universally accepted by the 12th century.