any of numerous minute dipterous insects, especially of the family Chironomidae, somewhat resembling a mosquito. Compare gnat ( def 1 ).
a tiny person.

before 900; Middle English mygge, Old English mycg(e); cognate with German Mücke, Old Norse mȳ; akin to Greek myîa, Latin musca fly

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World English Dictionary
midge (mɪdʒ)
1.  any fragile mosquito-like dipterous insect of the family Chironomidae, occurring in dancing swarms, esp near water
2.  any similar or related insect, such as the biting midge and gall midge
3.  a small or diminutive person or animal
[Old English mycge; compare Old High German mucca, Danish myg]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

O.E. mygg, mycg "gnat," from P.Gmc. *mugjon (cf. O.S. muggia, M.Du. mugghe, Du. mug, O.H.G. mucka, Ger. Mücke "midge, gnat"). No known cognates beyond Gmc., unless doubtful Arm. mun "gnat" and Alb. mize "gnat" are counted.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

midge (mĭj)
Any of various gnatlike flies, some species of which, such as the biting midges of the family Ceratopogonidae, serve as vectors for parasitic diseases.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
Any small fly is commonly called a gnat or a midge, but flies of whatever kind are seldom popular, either large or small.
The phantom midge larva is so clear it's nearly invisible.
Prompt action is necessary because otherwise a new generation of the rose midge will develop in two to three weeks.
Unlike flea beetles, the midge prefers moist, shady areas.
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