town, capital of Tarn-et-Garonne departement, Midi-Pyrenees region, southwestern France, located about 30 mi (50 km) by road north of Toulouse. Built at the confluence of the Tarn and its tributary the Tescou, the town has spread over a wide area. The early 14th-century Pont-Vieux still bridges the Tarn. Next to it on the right bank stands the 17th-century episcopal palace that, in the mid-19th century, became the Musee Ingres, housing 4,000 drawings and several paintings of the 18th-19th-century French painter Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, born at Montauban in 1780, as well as other contemporary works. The "Vow of Louis XIII," by Ingres, hangs in the cathedral. The church of Saint-Jacques, a fortified church dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, dominates the town. Montauban, deriving its name from the Latin Mons Albanus, was founded by the counts of Toulouse in the 12th century and was a principal bastion of Protestantism in southwest France during the 16th and 17th centuries. It is an agricultural market and an industrial town (electrical, aeronautical, and lighting equipment, furniture, and food processing, especially dairy goods). Pop. (1982) 36,122.
Learn more about Montauban with a free trial on Britannica.com.