neume

neume

[noom, nyoom]
noun
any of various symbols representing from one to four notes, used in the musical notation of the Middle Ages but now employed solely in the notation of Gregorian chant in the liturgical books of the Roman Catholic Church.

Origin:
1400–50; late Middle English < Medieval Latin neuma < Greek pneûma breath

neumatic [noo-mat-ik, nyoo-] , neumic, adjective
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neume or neum (njuːm)
 
n
music one of a series of notational symbols used before the 14th century
 
[C15: from Medieval Latin neuma group of notes sung on one breath, from Greek pneuma breath]
 
neum or neum
 
n
 
[C15: from Medieval Latin neuma group of notes sung on one breath, from Greek pneuma breath]
 
'neumic or neum
 
adj

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neume

in musical notation, a sign for one or a group of successive musical pitches, predecessor of modern musical notes. Neumes have been used in Christian (e.g., Gregorian, Byzantine) liturgical chant as well as in the earliest medieval polyphony (music in several voices, or parts) and some secular monophony (music consisting of a single melodic line). Early neumes developed from Greek textual accents that were gradually modified into shapes showing pitch direction and vocal ornament. These staffless, or chironomic, neumes facilitated recall of a memorized melody in accordance with the semi-oral musical practices of the time. Before long, neumes were "heighted" so as to suggest specific melodic lines. A musical staff of four lines evolved about the year 1000. Neumes placed on the staff showed exact pitch, allowing a singer to read an unfamiliar melody. Even within western Europe, differing systems of neumes were used in different geographical regions. By about 1200, neumes had assumed the characteristic square shapes still used in the modern notation of Gregorian chant. Whether and how neumes indicated rhythm remains a subject of controversy. Musical notes with time values evolved from neumes in the last half of the 13th century.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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