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neuron

[noo r-on, nyoo r-] /ˈnʊər ɒn, ˈnyʊər-/
noun
1.
Cell Biology. a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
Also, especially British, neurone
[noo r-ohn, nyoo r-] /ˈnʊər oʊn, ˈnyʊər-/ (Show IPA)
.
Also called nerve cell.
Compare synapse.
Origin
1880-1885
1880-85; < Greek neûron sinew, cord, nerve
Related forms
neuronal
[noo r-uh-nl, nyoo r-, noo-rohn-l, nyoo-] /ˈnʊər ə nl, ˈnyʊər-, nʊˈroʊn l, nyʊ-/ (Show IPA),
adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples from the web for neuron
  • In this case, the firing of one neuron suppresses firing in the rest of the network.
  • The single neuron seen here was grown on sensitive piezoelectric cantilever arrays.
  • Given the right signals, it can become a brand new heart cell or neuron or insulin-producing cell.
  • Meanwhile, dysfunction of the mirror neuron system has been linked to developmental disorders, such as autism.
  • When a neuron fires, calcium ions flood through special cell channels.
  • In a sense, he could think of it as a nervous system with a single neuron.
  • Now let's examine how neuron networks store and retrieve memories.
  • Special neuron networks exist that are pre-wired to link cortical neurons into a new network memory.
  • When a neuron fires, it cannot fire again until it has recharged, a time known as the refractory period.
  • Each neuron is connected to many others, and the strength of these connections changes constantly as the brain learns.
British Dictionary definitions for neuron

neurone

/ˈnjʊərəʊn/
noun
1.
a specialized cell that conducts nerve impulses: consists of a cell body, axon, and dendrites Also called nerve cell
Derived Forms
neuronal, adjective
neuronic (njʊˈrɒnɪk) adjective
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for neuron
n.

"a nerve cell with appendages," 1891, from German Neuron, from Greek neuron (see neuro-). Used earlier (1884) for "the spinal cord and brain."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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neuron in Medicine

neuron neu·ron (nur'ŏn', nyur'-) or neu·rone (-ōn')
n.
Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. Also called nerve cell, neurocyte.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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neuron in Science
neuron
  (nr'ŏn')   

A cell of the nervous system. Neurons typically consist of a cell body, which contains a nucleus and receives incoming nerve impulses, and an axon, which carries impulses away from the cell body. Also called nerve cell.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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neuron in Technology
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010 http://foldoc.org
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