neuron

[noor-on, nyoor-]
noun
Cell Biology. a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
Also, especially British, neurone [noor-ohn, nyoor-] .
Also called nerve cell.
Compare synapse.


Origin:
1880–85; < Greek neûron sinew, cord, nerve

neuronal [noor-uh-nl, nyoor-, noo-rohn-l, nyoo-] , adjective
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

neuron
"a nerve cell with appendages," 1891, from Ger. Neuron, from Gk. neuron (see neuro-). Used earlier (1884) for "the spinal cord and brain."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

neuron neu·ron (nur'ŏn', nyur'-) or neu·rone (-ōn')
n.
Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon. Also called nerve cell, neurocyte.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
neuron   (nr'ŏn')  Pronunciation Key 


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A cell of the nervous system. Neurons typically consist of a cell body, which contains a nucleus and receives incoming nerve impulses, and an axon, which carries impulses away from the cell body. Also called nerve cell.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
neurons [(noor-onz, nyoor-onz)]

The basic unit of nerve tissue; the nerve cells. Neurons carry and transmit electrical signals throughout the nervous system.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
The human brain may contain up to one trillion neurons.
Researchers have found a way to help the brain replace damaged neurons in mice.
Scientists have long wondered whether the brain contains neurons that fire in
  response to a familiar face.
For years, scientists believed that damaged nerve tissue could not be repaired
  because neurons are incapable of regeneration.
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