Halbkanton (demicanton), central Switzerland, formerly part of the canton of Unterwalden. The demicanton is drained by the Sarner River and occupies the western part of former Unterwalden canton. Obwalden means "above the forest" and refers to the great forest of Kerns that divided the two demicantons in the Middle Ages. Obwalden acted independently of Nidwalden in its acquisition, with Uri canton, of the Valle Leventina in 1403 and of Bellinzona in 1419 (losing both in 1422). After Nidwalden refused to accept the federal constitution of 1815, Obwalden received the abbey lands of Engelberg that now form a completely detached commune. A sovereign demicanton since 1803, Obwalden is administratively independent of Nidwalden. Its capital is Sarnen (q.v.). A dairying region with Alpine pastures, it has several resorts, notably Engelberg. The population is German speaking and Roman Catholic. Area 189 square miles (491 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 33,755.
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