other

[uhth-er]
adjective
1.
additional or further: he and one other person.
2.
different or distinct from the one mentioned or implied: in some other city; Some other design may be better.
3.
different in nature or kind: I would not have him other than he is.
4.
being the remaining one of two or more: the other hand.
5.
(used with plural nouns) being the remaining ones of a number: the other men; some other countries.
6.
former; earlier: sailing ships of other days.
7.
not long past: the other night.
noun
8.
the other one: Each praises the other.
pronoun
9.
Usually, others. other persons or things: others in the medical profession.
10.
some person or thing else: Surely some friend or other will help me.
adverb
11.
otherwise; differently (usually followed by than ): We can't collect the rent other than by suing the tenant.
Idioms
12.
every other, every alternate: a meeting every other week.

Origin:
before 900; Middle English; Old English ōther (pronoun, adj., and noun); cognate with German ander, Gothic anthar; akin to Sanskrit antara-

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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
other (ˈʌðə)
 
determiner
1.  a.  (when used before a singular noun, usually preceded by the) the remaining (one or ones in a group of which one or some have been specified): I'll read the other sections of the paper later
 b.  the other (as pronoun; functioning as sing): one walks while the other rides
2.  (a) different (one or ones from that or those already specified or understood): he found some other house; no other man but you; other days were happier
3.  additional; further: there are no other possibilities
4.  (preceded by every) alternate; two: it buzzes every other minute
5.  other than
 a.  apart from; besides: a lady other than his wife
 b.  Archaic form: other from different from: he couldn't be other than what he is
6.  archaic no other nothing else: I can do no other
7.  (preceded by a phrase or word with some) or other used to add vagueness to the preceding pronoun, noun, noun phrase, or adverb: some dog or other bit him; he's somewhere or other
8.  other things being equal conditions being the same or unchanged
9.  the other day a few days ago
10.  the other thing an unexpressed alternative
 
pron
11.  another: show me one other
12.  (plural) additional or further ones: the police have found two and are looking for others
13.  (plural) other people or things
14.  the others the remaining ones (of a group): take these and leave the others
15.  (plural) each other See also one another different ones (from those specified or understood): they'd rather have others, not these
 
adv
16.  (usually used with a negative and foll by than) otherwise; differently: they couldn't behave other than they do
 

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

other
O.E. oþer "the second, one of the two, other," from P.Gmc. *antharaz (cf. O.S. athar, O.N. annarr, Ger. ander, Goth. anþar "other"), from PIE *an-tero-, variant of *al-tero- "the other of two" (cf. Lith. antras, Skt. antarah "other, foreign," L. alter), from base *al- "beyond" + adj. comp.
suffix *-tero-. Sense of "second" was detached from this word in Eng. (which uses second, from L.) and Ger. (zweiter, from zwei "two") to avoid ambiguity. In Scand., however, the second floor is still the "other" floor (cf. Swed. andra, Dan. anden). Phrase other world "world of idealism or fantasy, afterlife, spirit-land" is c.1200; hence otherworldliness (c.1834). The other woman "a woman with whom a man begins a love affair while he is already committed" is from 1855. The other day originally (1154) was "the next day;" later (c.1300) "yesterday;" and now, loosely, "a day or two ago" (1421). Phrase other half in reference to either the poor or the rich, is recorded from 1607.
"La moitié du monde ne sçayt comment l'aultre vit." [Rabelais, "Pantagruel," 1532]
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Idioms & Phrases

other

In addition to the idioms beginning with other, also see at each other's throats; do unto others; each other; every other; in one ear and out the other; in someone's pocket (live in each other's pockets); in other words; laugh out of the other side of one's mouth; look the other way; made for (each other); none other than; on the one (the other) hand; or other; right (other) side of the tracks; shoe is on the other foot; six of one, half a dozen of the other; the other day; this and that (and the other); turn the other cheek; wait for the other shoe to drop.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms by Christine Ammer.
Copyright © 1997. Published by Houghton Mifflin.
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Example sentences
Those obligations can keep faculty members from talking to one another, much
  less to their colleagues in other departments.
Please stay on topic and be respectful of other readers.
The pair likely died within days or perhaps even hours of each other and may
  have been related.
And our use of them can reveal, among other things, whether a romance will work
  out or how well two people work together.
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