a patient who receives treatment at a hospital, as in an emergency room or clinic, but is not hospitalized.
Also, out-patient.

1705–15; out- + patient

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World English Dictionary
outpatient (ˈaʊtˌpeɪʃənt)
Compare inpatient a nonresident hospital patient

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1715 (n.) "person who is treated at a hospital but not admitted," from out + patient (q.v.). The adj. is first recorded 1879.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

outpatient out·pa·tient (out'pā'shənt)
A patient who is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that does not require an overnight stay.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
Imagine: you go to an outpatient clinic they install two shunts.
But by age five, after extensive outpatient therapy, she had recovered her
  faculties completely.
For that reason, no one thought it necessary to include an outpatient
  prescription drug benefit in the program.
Tubal ligation is done in a hospital or outpatient clinic.
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