|a screen or mat covered with a dark material for shielding a camera lens from excess light or glare.|
|a calculus or concretion found in the stomach or intestines of certain animals, esp. ruminants, formerly reputed to be an effective remedy for poison.|
|Panama (ˌpænəˈmɑː, ˈpænəˌmɑː)|
|1.||a republic in Central America, occupying the Isthmus of Panama: gained independence from Spain in 1821 and joined Greater Colombia; became independent in 1903, with the immediate area around the canal forming the Canal Zone under US jurisdiction; Panama assumed sovereignty over the Canal Zone in 1979 and full control in 1999. Official language: Spanish; English is also widely spoken. Religion: Roman Catholic majority. Currency: balboa. Capital: Panama City. Pop: 3 178 000 (2004 est). Area: 75 650 sq km (29 201 sq miles)|
|2.||Isthmus of Panama Darien, Former name: Isthmus of Darien an isthmus linking North and South America, between the Pacific and the Caribbean. Length: 676 km (420 miles). Width (at its narrowest point): 50 km (31 miles)|
|3.||Gulf of Panama a wide inlet of the Pacific in Panama|
Note: Backed by the United States, which wanted to negotiate a treaty to build a canal connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, Panama revolted against Colombia, of which it was a part, and declared itself independent in 1903.
Note: The United States built the Panama Canal from 1904 to 1914, and American relations with Panama long were shaped by the U.S. presence in the Canal Zone, which divides the country.
Note: In 1989, the United States invaded Panama and forcibly removed its leader, Manuel Noriega, to the United States, where he was tried and convicted for drug trafficking. (See also Panama Canal.)