a person who offers views or theories on profound questions in ethics, metaphysics, logic, and other related fields.
a person who is deeply versed in philosophy.
a person who establishes the central ideas of some movement, cult, etc.
a person who regulates his or her life, actions, judgments, utterances, etc., by the light of philosophy or reason.
a person who is rationally or sensibly calm, especially under trying circumstances.
Obsolete. an alchemist or occult scientist.

before 900; Middle English, variant of philosophre < Anglo-French (Middle French philosophe < Latin philosophus); replacing Old English philosoph < Latin philosophus < Greek philósophos philosopher, equivalent to philo- philo- + soph(ía) wisdom (see -sophy) + -os noun suffix

philosophership, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
philosopher (fɪˈlɒsəfə)
1.  a student, teacher, or devotee of philosophy
2.  a person of philosophical temperament, esp one who is patient, wise, and stoical
3.  (formerly) an alchemist or devotee of occult science
4.  a person who establishes the ideology of a cult or movement: the philosopher of the revolution

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

O.E. philosophe, from L. philosophus, from Gk. philosophos "philosopher," lit. "lover of wisdom," from philos "loving" + sophos "wise, a sage."
"Pythagoras was the first who called himself philosophos, instead of sophos, 'wise man,' since this latter term was suggestive of immodesty." [Klein]
Modern form with -r appears early 14c., from an Anglo-Fr. or O.Fr. variant of philosophe, with an agent-noun ending. Philosophy also was used of alchemy in Middle Ages, hence Philosophers' stone (late 14c., translating M.L. lapis philosophorum, c.1130), a reputed solid substance supposed by alchemists to change baser metals into gold or silver; also identified with the elixir and thus given the attribute of prolonging life indefinitely and curing wounds and disease. (Fr. pierre philosophale, Ger. der Stein der Weisen).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

philosopher definition

Someone who engages in philosophy. Some examples of philosophers are Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and Plato.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
This philosopher is a politician, too.
In hard times, few local figures are as vital as the bartender-philosopher.
Plato was the first philosopher, whose works we posses, to build a philosophy
  around mathematics.
He was a Christian philosopher, and excellently versed both in the profane and
  sacred sciences.
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