phylloxera struck in the late 19th century, and in the 20th century, Soviet winemaking mandates encouraged quantity above quality.
The original vines on the estate perished in the late 19th century from oidium and phylloxera, and Klein Constantia shut down.
The cause of the mischief, the terrible phylloxera devastatrix, was brought to light in 1868.
Want of rain and the phylloxera are constant anxieties at the Cape.
What is the phylloxera, and what shall I do to my grape vines if they infest the roots?
Why may we not grow these grapes if we protect them from phylloxera, fungi and cold?
The roots are soft and fleshy (for an American grape) and in some localities quite subject to attacks of phylloxera.
The winter egg may be taken as the beginning of the life cycle of the phylloxera.
The phylloxera also made its way to the island, and every vineyard in Madeira was more or less affected by it.
Like those of Vulpina, the roots are slender, hard and resistant to phylloxera.