verb (used with object), populated, populating.
to inhabit; live in; be the inhabitants of.
to furnish with inhabitants, as by colonization; people.

1570–80; < Medieval Latin populātus, past participle of populāre to inhabit. See people, -ate1

outpopulate, verb (used with object), outpopulated, outpopulating.
repopulate, verb (used with object), repopulated, repopulating.
superpopulated, adjective
underpopulate, verb (used with object), underpopulated, underpopulating.
unpopulated, adjective
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
populate (ˈpɒpjʊˌleɪt)
1.  (often passive) to live in; inhabit
2.  to provide a population for; colonize or people
[C16: from Medieval Latin populāre to provide with inhabitants, from Latin populus people]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1570s, from M.L. populatus, pp. of populare "inhabit," from L. populus "inhabitants."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
And the insurers who populate that market have grown all the stronger.
It may sound gimmicky and over the top, but the secret to its success is the
  realistic characters that populate it.
Compact plants surrounded by clusters of small firms that service them will
  likely populate tomorrow's manufacturing landscape.
It is the religious leaders who demanded their flock out populate the others.
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