[po-steer-ee-er, poh-]
situated behind or at the rear of; hinder (opposed to anterior ).
coming after in order, as in a series.
coming after in time; later; subsequent (sometimes followed by to ).
Anatomy, Zoology.
(in quadrupeds) pertaining to or toward the rear or caudal end of the body.
(in humans and other primates) pertaining to or toward the back plane of the body, equivalent to the dorsal surface of quadrupeds.
Botany. toward the back and near the main axis, as the upper lip of a flower.
the hinder parts or rump of the body; buttocks.

1525–35; < Latin, comparative of posterus coming after, derivative of post after

posteriorly, adverb

1. See back1. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
posterior (pɒˈstɪərɪə)
1.  situated at the back of or behind something
2.  coming after or following another in a series
3.  coming after in time
4.  zoology (of animals) of or near the hind end
5.  botany (of a flower) situated nearest to the main stem
6.  anatomy dorsal or towards the spine
7.  the buttocks; rump
8.  statistics a posterior probability
[C16: from Latin: latter, from posterus coming next, from post after]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1534, "later," from L. posterior "after, later, behind," comparative of posterus "coming after, subsequent," from post "after" (see post-). Meaning "buttocks" is attested from 1619.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

posterior pos·te·ri·or (pŏ-stēr'ē-ər, pō-)

  1. Located behind a part or toward the rear of a structure.

  2. Relating to the caudal end of the body in quadrupeds or the dorsal side in humans.

  3. Near the tail or caudal end of certain embryos.

pos·te'ri·or·ly adv.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
Oropharyngeal cancers refer to tumors of the tonsils and rear tongue, back of the palate and posterior walls of the throat.
One photo showed the posterior of the ailing bird-Ms.
Or, for that matter, the aforementioned posterior from a hole in the ground.
The organs in its posterior end, except those involved in reproduction, begin
  to degenerate.
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