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"results, profits," 1660s, from proceed (v.) on the notion of "that which proceeds" from some event or activity.
late 14c., "to go on," also "to emanate from, result from," from Old French proceder (13c., Modern French procéder) and directly from Latin procedere (past participle processus) "go before, go forward, advance, make progress; come forward," from pro- "forward" (see pro-) + cedere "to go" (see cede). Related: Proceeded; proceeding.