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proof

[proof] /pruf/
noun
1.
evidence sufficient to establish a thing as true, or to produce belief in its truth.
2.
anything serving as such evidence:
What proof do you have?
3.
the act of testing or making trial of anything; test; trial:
to put a thing to the proof.
4.
the establishment of the truth of anything; demonstration.
5.
Law. (in judicial proceedings) evidence having probative weight.
6.
the effect of evidence in convincing the mind.
7.
an arithmetical operation serving to check the correctness of a calculation.
8.
Mathematics, Logic. a sequence of steps, statements, or demonstrations that leads to a valid conclusion.
9.
a test to determine the quality, durability, etc., of materials used in manufacture.
10.
Distilling.
  1. the arbitrary standard strength, as of an alcoholic liquor.
  2. strength with reference to this standard: “100 proof” signifies a proof spirit, usually 50% alcohol.
11.
Photography. a trial print from a negative.
12.
Printing.
  1. a trial impression, as of composed type, taken to correct errors and make alterations.
  2. one of a number of early and superior impressions taken before the printing of the ordinary issue:
    to pull a proof.
13.
(in printmaking) an impression taken from a plate or the like to show the quality or condition of work during the process of execution; a print pulled for examination while working on a plate, block, stone, etc.
14.
Numismatics. one of a limited number of coins of a new issue struck from polished dies on a blank having a polished or matte surface.
15.
the state of having been tested and approved.
16.
proved strength, as of armor.
17.
Scots Law. the trial of a case by a judge alone, without a jury.
adjective
18.
able to withstand; successful in not being overcome:
proof against temptation.
19.
impenetrable, impervious, or invulnerable:
proof against outside temperature changes.
20.
used for testing or proving; serving as proof.
21.
of standard strength, as an alcoholic liquor.
22.
of tested or proven strength or quality:
proof armor.
23.
noting pieces of pure gold and silver that the U.S. assay and mint offices use as standards.
verb (used with object)
24.
to test; examine for flaws, errors, etc.; check against a standard or standards.
25.
Printing. prove (def 7).
26.
to proofread.
27.
to treat or coat for the purpose of rendering resistant to deterioration, damage, etc. (often used in combination):
to proof a house against termites; to shrink-proof a shirt.
28.
Cookery.
  1. to test the effectiveness of (yeast), as by combining with warm water so that a bubbling action occurs.
  2. to cause (especially bread dough) to rise due to the addition of baker's yeast or other leavening.
Origin
1175-1225
1175-1225; Middle English prove, prooff, prof, proufe, alteration (by association with the vowel of prove) of preove, proeve, prieve, pref < Middle French preve, proeve, prueve < Late Latin proba a test, akin to Latin probāre to test and find good; cf. pree
Related forms
re-proof, verb (used with object)
unproofed, adjective
Synonyms
1. confirmation, demonstration, corroboration, support. See evidence. 3. examination, assay. 18. firm, steadfast.

-proof

1.
a combining form meaning “resistant, impervious to” that specified by the initial element:
burglarproof; childproof; waterproof.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples for proof
  • He did not have proof for his views, but there did not seem to be much evidence that directly refuted it.
  • But if delivery is regarded as outstanding, it is only evidence-not proof-of success.
  • They work collaboratively for a certain period of time to come up with a team writeup of their proof.
  • Nevertheless, this tooth is the first unarguable proof that crocodilians did indeed snack on dinosaurs.
  • More proof that particle physicists have wandered off into pseudo-science.
  • Floating homes and boats could quickly provide earthquake proof homes.
  • There is a lot of proof that cuts in government support of higher education leads to tuition increases, not decreases.
  • Ed discovers terrifying proof that a bear is living nearby.
  • The proof is in the pudding only if you concede the fact of the pudding.
  • There is absolutely overwhelming proof for evolution.
British Dictionary definitions for proof

proof

/pruːf/
noun
1.
any evidence that establishes or helps to establish the truth, validity, quality, etc, of something
2.
(law) the whole body of evidence upon which the verdict of a court is based
3.
(maths, logic) a sequence of steps or statements that establishes the truth of a proposition See also direct (sense 17), induction (sense 4), induction (sense 8)
4.
the act of testing the truth of something (esp in the phrase put to the proof)
5.
(Scots law) trial before a judge without a jury
6.
(printing) a trial impression made from composed type, or a print-out (from a laser printer, etc) for the correction of errors
7.
(in engraving, etc) a print made by an artist or under his supervision for his own satisfaction before he hands the plate over to a professional printer
8.
(photog) a trial print from a negative
9.
  1. the alcoholic strength of proof spirit
  2. the strength of a beverage or other alcoholic liquor as measured on a scale in which the strength of proof spirit is 100 degrees
adjective
10.
(usually postpositive) foll by against. able to resist; impervious (to) the roof is proof against rain
11.
having the alcoholic strength of proof spirit
12.
of proved strength or impenetrability proof armour
verb
13.
(transitive) to take a proof from (type matter, a plate, etc)
14.
to proofread (text) or inspect (a print, etc), as for approval
15.
to render (something) proof, esp to waterproof
Word Origin
C13: from Old French preuve a test, from Late Latin proba, from Latin probāre to test

-proof

adjective, combining form
1.
secure against (damage by); (make) impervious to waterproof, mothproof, childproof
Word Origin
from proof (adj)
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for proof
n.

early 13c., preove "evidence to establish the fact of (something)," from Anglo-French preove, Old French prueve "proof, test, experience" (13c., Modern French preuve), from Late Latin proba "a proof," a back-formation from Latin probare "to prove" (see prove). "The devocalization of v to f ensued upon the loss of final e; cf. the relation of v and f in believe, belief, relieve, relief, behove, behoof, etc. [OED].

Meaning "act of proving" is early 14c. Meaning "act of testing or making trial of anything" is from late 14c., from influence of prove. Meaning "standard of strength of distilled liquor" is from 1705. In photography from 1855. Typographical sense of "trial impression to test type" is from c.1600. Numismatic sense of "coin struck to test a die" is from 1762; now mostly in reference to coins struck from highly polished dies, mainly for collectors.

Adjectival sense (proof against) is recorded from 1590s, from the noun in expressions such as proof of (mid-15c.), hence extended senses involving "tested power" in compounds such as fireproof (1630s), waterproof (1725), foolproof (1902), etc. Shakespeare has shame-proof.

v.

1834, "to test," from proof (n.). From 1950 as short for proofread (v.). Related: Proofed; proofing.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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proof in Science
proof
  (prf)   
A demonstration of the truth of a mathematical or logical statement, based on axioms and theorems derived from those axioms.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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proof in Technology

1. A finite sequence of well-formed formulas, F1, F2, ... Fn, where each Fi either is an axiom, or follows by some rule of inference from some of the previous F's, and Fn is the statement being proved.
See also proof theory.
2. A left-associative natural language parser by Craig R. Latta . Ported to Decstation 3100, Sun-4.
(ftp://scam.berkeley.edu/pub/src/local/proof/).
E-mail: . Mailing list: proof-requestf@xcf.berkeley.edu (Subject: add me).
(1994-11-29)
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010 http://foldoc.org
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