quantum computer

noun
a computer that makes use of the quantum states of electrons or other particles to store and process information as quantum bits.

quantum computing, noun
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Collins
World English Dictionary
quantum computer
 
n
a type of computer which uses the ability of quantum systems to be in many different states at once, thus allowing it to perform many different computations simultaneously

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
quantum computer  
A computer that exploits the quantum mechanical properties of superposition in order to allow a single operation to act on a large number of pieces of data. In a quantum computer, the data to be manipulated, represented in quantum bits, exists in all possible states simultaneously, in superposition. This allows a single operation to operate over all of these states at once, in contrast with a classical computer, which must carry out an operation for each state separately. Because of the difficulty of creating environments small enough for quantum effects to emerge but sufficiently isolated to prevent interaction with outside influences such as heat, only extremely rudimentary quantum computers currently exist, though algorithms for possible future devices are being developed.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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FOLDOC
Computing Dictionary

quantum computer definition

computer
A type of computer which uses the ability of quantum systems, such as a collection of atoms, to be in many different states at once. In theory, such superpositions allow the computer to perform many different computations simultaneously. This capability is combined with interference among the states to produce answers to some problems, such as factoring integers, much more rapidly than is possible with conventional computers. In practice, such machines have not yet been built due to their extreme sensitivity to noise.
Oxford University (http://eve.physics.ox.ac.uk/QChome.html), Stanford University (http://feynman.stanford.edu/qcomp/).
A quantum search algorithm (ftp://parcftp.xerox.com/pub/dynamics/quantum.html) for constraint satisfaction problems exhibits the phase transition for NP-complete problems.
(1997-02-11)
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010 http://foldoc.org
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Example sentences
With a small number of qubits, a quantum computer could perform a vast number
  of calculations in parallel.
And it is the first quantum computer to simulate and calculate the behavior of
  a molecular, quantum system.
The other is that it's the amount required to simulate the universe on a
  quantum computer.
Their discovery could help pave the way toward a practical quantum computer.
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