the share or proportional part of a total that is required from, or is due or belongs to, a particular district, state, person, group, etc.
a proportional part or share of a fixed total amount or quantity.
the number or percentage of persons of a specified kind permitted to enroll in a college, join a club, immigrate to a country, etc.

1660–70; < Medieval Latin, short for Latin quota pars how great a part?

1. allotment, apportionment, allocation.
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World English Dictionary
quota (ˈkwəʊtə)
1.  the proportional share or part of a whole that is due from, due to, or allocated to a person or group
2.  a prescribed number or quantity, as of items to be manufactured, imported, or exported, immigrants admitted to a country, or students admitted to a college
[C17: from Latin quota pars how big a share?, from quotus of what number]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1668, from M.L. quota, from L. quota pars "how large a part," from quota, fem. sing. of quotus "which, what number (in sequence)." See quote. Earliest ref. is to contributions of soldiers or supplies levied from a town or district; immigration sense is from 1921.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Catch share programs, in which regional fishery councils divvy up quota shares
  to fishermen, could help ease this burden.
The new quota will operate on some kind of point system.
In sales you get caught up in trying to tell people how they can make more
  money and how they can make their quota.
My job was to visit our low-volume customers and see if I could help them meet
  their quota.
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