verb (used without object), rankled, rankling.
(of unpleasant feelings, experiences, etc.) to continue to cause keen irritation or bitter resentment within the mind; fester; be painful.
verb (used with object), rankled, rankling.
to cause keen irritation or bitter resentment in: His colleague's harsh criticism rankled him for days.

1250–1300; Middle English ranclen < Middle French rancler, Old French raoncler, variant of draoncler to fester, derivative of draoncle a sore < Late Latin dracunculus small serpent, diminutive of Latin dracō serpent; see dragon, carbuncle

ranklingly, adverb
unrankled, adjective

1, 2. irritate, gall, chafe.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
rankle (ˈræŋkəl)
(intr) to cause severe and continuous irritation, anger, or bitterness; fester: his failure to win still rankles
[C14 ranclen, from Old French draoncler to fester, from draoncle ulcer, from Latin dracunculus small serpent, from dracō serpent; see dragon]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

c.1320, from O.Fr. rancler, from draoncle "abscess, festering sore," from L. dracunculus "little snake," dim. of draco (gen. draconis) "serpent, dragon." The notion is of an ulcer caused by a snake's bite.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Few things rankle a doctor more than an insurance company's saying it cannot
  find a claim for medical services.
Many professors rankle at the notion that they should have to worry about it
Yet their unfair advantages, of money and connections, rankle with honest
  citizens who never collaborated.
Security delays don't rankle unless there are longer waits at some airports
  than others.
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