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city, central Ecuador. It is situated in the central highlands at an elevation of about 9,000 feet (2,700 m) in the basin of the Riobamba River, just south of Mount Chimborazo. The surrounding region was densely settled in pre-Inca and Inca times; in 1534 the Spanish established the city on the site of Cajabamba (12 miles [19 km] southwest). An earthquake and landslide in 1797 killed many inhabitants, and the survivors moved the city to its present location. In 1830 the first Ecuadoran constitutional congress met at Riobamba and proclaimed the republic. The Roman Catholic diocese of Riobamba was established in 1863