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lichen of the genus Umbilicaria, sometimes used as emergency food by soldiers or explorers. It contains about one-third more calories than equal amounts of honey, corn flakes, or hominy; however, this lichen cannot seriously be considered as a food crop because of its slow growth rate. Rock tripe was boiled by Washington's troops at Valley Forge. In Japan U. esculenta, called "iwa-take," or "rock mushroom," is sold as a delicacy and eaten in salads or fried in deep fat. Species of rock tripe are also used as dyes.