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city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany. It lies in the foothills of the Harz Mountains, southwest of Braunschweig. The area covers the largest deposit of iron ore in Germany (no longer mined), and in 1937 the former Reichswerke ("state works"), the Hermann Goring Reich Company for Ore Mining and Iron Smelting, was established to exploit this resource. In 1942 the old town of Salzgitter and 27 adjoining villages were incorporated into the existing municipality, known until 1951 as Watenstedt-Salzgitter. Watenstedt was chosen as the centre for the preparation of the ore and for the metallurgical works, and an 11-mile (18-km) branch canal for the transport of Ruhr coal was built from the adjoining district of Hallendorf to the Mittelland Canal. The ore, with a comparatively low iron content, was mined around the Salzgitter ridge and Salzgitter-Bad. In 1938-40 and after World War II, the districts of Lebenstedt, Salzgitter-Bad, Thiede, Gebhardshagen, and Hallendorf were developed as modern residential estates. Industries today include the production of railway cars and wagons, trucks, machinery, pharmaceuticals, synthetic materials, wood and metal products, and paper. Electrical engineering is also important. Much of the municipal land is agricultural (wheat, sugar beets, grazing). Salzgitter-Bad is a well-known spa with a brine spring from which salt has been extracted since about 800. The district of Lebenstedt is the seat of the municipal administration. The municipal museum features exhibits on the city's mining history. A notable landmark is a 46-foot (14-metre) sculpture (1995) dedicated to the city's industrial heritage. Pop. (2003 est.) 109,855.