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(Portuguese: "yearning"), overtone of melancholy and brooding loneliness and an almost mystical reverence for nature that permeates Portuguese and Brazilian lyric poetry. Saudade was a characteristic of the earliest Portuguese folk poetry and has been cultivated by sophisticated writers of later generations. In the late 19th century Antonio Nobre and Teixeira de Pascoais were the foremost of a growing cult of saudosismo. Especially in the poems collected in So (1892), Nobre was intensely Portuguese in his themes, his mood (an all-pervading saudade), and his rhythms; whereas Teixeira de Pascoais typified the pantheist tendencies of Portuguese poetry. They inspired the movement known as the Renascenca Portuguesa, centred on Porto about 1910. The Portuguese Renaissance's poets, particularly Mario Beirao, Augusto Casimiro, and Joao de Barros, adopted saudosismo as the key to the nation's greatness.