the integument of the upper part of the head, usually including the associated subcutaneous structures.
a part of this integument with the accompanying hair, severed from the head of an enemy as a sign of victory, as by some North American Indians and others during the colonial and frontier periods in the U.S.
any token of victory.
the integument on the top of the head of an animal.
Informal. a small profit made in quick buying and selling.
verb (used with object)
to cut or tear the scalp from.
to resell (tickets, merchandise, etc.) at higher than the official rates.
to buy and sell (stocks) so as to make small quick profits.
to plane down the surfaces of (an ingot, billet, or slab).
verb (used without object)
Informal. to scalp tickets, stocks, or the like.

1250–1300; Middle English (north) (noun), perhaps < Old Norse skālpr sheath (hence, metaphorically a covering)

scalper, noun
scalpless, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
scalp (skælp)
1.  anatomy the skin and subcutaneous tissue covering the top of the head
2.  (among North American Indians) a part of this removed as a trophy from a slain enemy
3.  a trophy or token signifying conquest
4.  chiefly (US) hunting a piece of hide cut from the head of a victim as a trophy or as proof of killing in order to collect a bounty
5.  informal chiefly (US) a small speculative profit taken in quick transactions
6.  dialect (Scot) a projection of bare rock from vegetation
7.  to cut the scalp from
8.  informal chiefly (US) to purchase and resell (securities) quickly so as to make several small profits
9.  informal to buy (tickets) cheaply and resell at an inflated price
[C13: probably from Scandinavian; compare Old Norse skalpr sheath, Middle Dutch schelpe, Danish skalp husk]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

c.1300, presumably from a Scand. source (though exact cognates are wanting) related to O.N. skalli "bald head," skalpr "sheath," from the source of scale (n.2). Fr. scalpe, Ger., Swed. skalp are from English. The verb meaning "to cut off (someone's) scalp" is recorded from
1676, originally in ref. to N.Amer. Indians.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

scalp (skālp)
The skin covering the top of the head.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
They anesthetized her to remove a piece of her scalp and skull and fold back a
  protective membrane underneath.
As a wildlife filmmaker, she took the opportunity to film her husband removing
  the larva from her scalp.
Graying begins inside the sunken pits in the scalp called follicles.
Others suckle your scalp to extract your bodily fluids for sustenance.
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