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city, Kagoshima ken (prefecture), southwestern Kyushu, Japan, on the lower Sendai River. A communications centre since early historic times, it was a small castle town and naval port during the Tokugawa period (1603-1867). With the opening of the Kagoshima Line (railway) in the late 19th century, it developed as a local commercial centre. The city was damaged heavily during World War II but recovered as an industrial site, with large paper-pulp plants. A university was founded there in 1949. Pop. (2000) 73,236.