silt

[silt]
noun
1.
earthy matter, fine sand, or the like carried by moving or running water and deposited as a sediment.
verb (used without object)
2.
to become filled or choked up with silt.
verb (used with object)
3.
to fill or choke up with silt.

Origin:
1400–50; late Middle English cylte gravel, perhaps orig. salty deposit; compare Old English unsylt unsalted, unseasoned, sylting seasoning, syltan to salt, season, Norwegian sylt salty swamp, German Sülze salt marsh, brine

siltation, noun
silty, adjective
desilt, verb (used with object)

sand, sediment, silt.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
silt (sɪlt)
 
n
1.  a fine deposit of mud, clay, etc, esp one in a river or lake
 
vb
2.  (usually foll by up) to fill or become filled with silt; choke
 
[C15: of Scandinavian origin; compare Norwegian, Danish sylt salt marsh; related to Old High German sulza salt marsh; see salt]
 
sil'tation
 
n
 
'silty
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

silt
c.1440, originally "sediment deposited by seawater," probably from M.L.G. or M.Du. silte, sulte "salt marsh, brine," related to O.E. sealt, O.H.G. sulza "saltwater," Ger. Sulze "brine" (see salt). The verb meaning "to become choked with silt" (of river channels, harbors, etc.) is attested from 1799.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
silt   (sĭlt)  Pronunciation Key 
A sedimentary material consisting of grains or particles of disintegrated rock, smaller than sand and larger than clay. The diameter of the particles ranges from 0.0039 to 0.0625 mm. Silt is often found at the bottom of bodies of water where it accumulates slowly by settling through the water.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
And the natural process of silt replenishing the delta would be needed to
  protect that part of the city.
Silt is full of nutrients that help microbes and plants grow.
The areas outside of the channels were probably dominated by mud and silt.
Opponents predict that the turbines will silt up and that the dams will produce
  only half the energy advertised.
Synonyms
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