[si-loor-ee-uhn, sahy-]
of or pertaining to the Silures or their country.
Geology. noting or pertaining to a period of the Paleozoic Era, occurring from 425 to 405 million years ago, notable for the advent of air-breathing animals and terrestrial plants. See table under geologic time.
Geology. the Silurian Period or System of rocks.

1700–10; Silur(es) + -ian

post-Silurian, adjective
pre-Silurian, adjective, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
Silurian (saɪˈlʊərɪən)
1.  of, denoting, or formed in the third period of the Palaeozoic era, between the Ordovician and Devonian periods, which lasted for 25 million years, during which fishes first appeared
2.  of or relating to the Silures
3.  the Silurian the Silurian period or rock system

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1708, "pertaining to the Silures," from L. Silures "ancient British tribe inhabiting southeast Wales." Geological sense is from 1835, coined by Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871) because rocks of this period are especially frequent in Wales.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
Silurian   (sĭ-lr'ē-ən)  Pronunciation Key 
The third period of the Paleozoic Era, from about 438 to 408 million years ago. During this time glaciers that formed during the late Ordovician melted, causing sea levels to rise. The first coral reefs, fish with jaws, and freshwater fish appeared, and jawless fish continued to spread rapidly. The first vascular plants also appeared, as did land invertebrates including relatives of spiders and centipedes. See Chart at geologic time.
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