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city and administrative centre of Crimea, in southern Ukraine. The city lies along the Salhyr (Salgir) River where it emerges from the Crimean Mountains. On the present outskirts of the city is the site of Neapolis, occupied by the Scythians from the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD; but modern Simferopol was founded by the Russians in 1784, adjacent to the Tatar settlement of Ak-Mechet, after the annexation of the Crimea. Simferopol has a wide range of food-processing industries and makes wine and tobacco products. There are also light engineering and consumer-goods industries; products have included machine tools, armatures, television sets, clothing, and footwear. The city has several educational institutes and research establishments. Pop. (2001) 343,644; (2005 est.) 341,599.