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also Shiva, one of the three supreme gods of Hinduism, lord of destruction and reproduction, 1788, from Hindi Shiva, from Sanskrit Sivah, literally "propitious, gracious," from PIE *ki-wo-, from root *kei- "beloved, dear" (connected with Latin civis "citizen," literally "member of a household"), also "to lie, couch" (cf. cemetery). But by some this is said to be a euphemism. Related: Sivaism; Sivaistic.
city, central Turkey. It lies at an elevation of 4,183 feet (1,275 metres) in the broad valley of the Kizil River. Although excavations at a mound known as Topraktepe indicate Hittite settlements in the locality, nothing is known of Sivas' history prior to its emergence as the Roman city of Sebastea, which became the capital of Armenia Minor under the emperor Diocletian near the end of the 3rd century. Justinian I had the city walls rebuilt and fortified in the 6th century, and under the Byzantine emperors Sebastea was a large and wealthy Anatolian city. In 1021 Sennacherib-John, the Armenian king of Vaspurakan (Van), ceded his dominions to the emperor Basil II and became the Byzantine viceroy of Sebastea. His successors served in the same position until the Turks arrived in the area in the late 11th century. The Turkmen Danishmend dynasty conquered Sebastea about 1080-90, renamed it Sivas, and made it the capital of a principality until it fell to the Seljuq sultan of Rum in 1172. Under the Seljuqs, Sivas reached its greatest prosperity, becoming one of the most important cities of Anatolia; it was said to have had more than 150,000 inhabitants when it was plundered by the Central Asian ruler Timur (Tamerlane) in 1400.