a detective. investigator, private investigator; private eye, gumshoe, shamus.
a bloodhound, a dog used for tracking.
verb (used with object), verb (used without object)
to track or trail, as a detective.

1875–80; short for sleuthhound

sleuthlike, adjective
supersleuth, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
sleuth (sluːθ)
1.  an informal word for detective
2.  short for sleuthhound
3.  (tr) to track or follow
[C19: short for sleuthhound, from C12 sleuth trail, from Old Norse sloth; see slot²]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

c.1200, "track or trail of a person," from O.N. sloð "trail," of uncertain origin. Meaning "detective" is 1872, shortening of sleuthhound "keen investigator" (1849), a figurative use of a word for a kind of bloodhound that dates back to late 14c. The verb (intrans.) meaning "to act as a detective,
investigate" is recorded from 1912.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
She keeps track of this confusing and colorful aerial menagerie with a little
  biological sleuthing.
Regulators and prosecutors will not provide details about sleuthing techniques.
Paying more attention to old-fashioned sleuthing would help.
All told, this statistical sleuthing suggests today's central bankers have
  little room for complacency.
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