slide rule

noun
a device for performing mathematical calculations, consisting essentially of a ruler having a sliding piece moving along it, both marked with graduated, usually logarithmic, scales: now largely replaced by the electronic calculator.

Origin:
1655–65 for earlier sense; 1875–80 for current sense

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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
slide rule
 
n
a mechanical calculating device consisting of two strips, one sliding along a central groove in the other, each strip graduated in two or more logarithmic scales of numbers, trigonometric functions, etc. It employs the same principles as logarithm tables

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

slide rule

a device consisting of graduated scales capable of relative movement, by means of which simple calculations may be carried out mechanically. Typical slide rules contain scales for multiplying, dividing, and extracting square roots, and some also contain scales for calculating trigonometric functions and logarithms. The slide rule remained an essential tool in science and engineering and was widely used in business and industry until it was superseded by the portable electronic calculator late in the 20th century.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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Example sentences
After presiding over years of technological innovations, the inventor himself
  still prefers the simplicity of a slide rule.
Yet another familiar school-days object may be going the way of the inkwell and
  the slide rule.
Eventually, old fashioned books will go the way of the buggy whip and the slide
  rule.
The engineer is often not allowed sufficient time to perform long hydraulics
  formulas and exacting slide rule calculations.
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