a chip or splinter, as of stone or ore.
verb (used with object)
to break into smaller pieces, as ore; split or chip.
verb (used without object)
to break or split off in chips or bits.

1750–60; origin uncertain; compare late Middle English spalle a chip

spaller, noun
nonspalling, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
spall (spɔːl)
1.  a splinter or chip of ore, rock, or stone
2.  to split or cause to split into such fragments
[C15: of unknown origin]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

"chip of stone," 1440, from M.E. verb spald "to split" (c.1400), from M.L.G. spalden, cognate with O.H.G. spaltan "to split" (see spill).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
When the metal plate spalls, it creates a spall disk that is ejected from the
If dowel bars are reached, a full-depth spall repair must be used.
Percussion flaking is accomplished by striking the chert with a stone or heavy
  antler billet, thereby driving off a spall.
The corrosion causes the concrete to spall from the bridge and also reduces the
  cross section of the steel bars.
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