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scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of caves and cave systems. Exploration and description of caves and their features are the principal focus of speleology, but much work on the chemical solution of limestone, rates of formation of stalagmites and stalactites, the influence of groundwater and hydrologic conditions generally, and on modes of cave development has been accomplished within this discipline. Speleology requires, essentially, the application of geological and hydrological knowledge to problems associated with underground cavern systems. Amateur exploration of caves, as a hobby, is called spelunking.