Informal. a potato.
a spadelike instrument, especially one with a narrow blade, as for digging up or cutting the roots of weeds.
a chisellike tool for removing bark.
a pointed leg or stake for staying or supporting dredging or earth-boring machinery.
a short pipe, as for connecting a water pipe with a meter.
Surgery. an instrument having a dull flattened blade for removing substances or foreign bodies from certain parts of the body, as wax from the ear.
verb (used with object), spudded, spudding.
to remove with a spud.
Verb phrases
spud in, to set up earth-boring equipment, especially for drilling an oil well.

1400–50; late Middle English spudde short knife < ?

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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
spud (spʌd)
1.  an informal word for potato
2.  a narrow-bladed spade for cutting roots, digging up weeds, etc
3.  Also called: spudder a tool, resembling a chisel, for removing bark from trees
vb , spuds, spudding, spudded
4.  (tr) to remove (bark) or eradicate (weeds) with a spud
5.  (intr) to drill the first foot of an oil-well
[C15 spudde short knife, of unknown origin; applied later to a digging tool, and hence to a potato]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

c.1440 "small or poor knife," of uncertain origin probably related to Dan. spyd, O.N. spjot "spear," Ger. Spiess "spear, lance"). Meaning "spade" is from 1667; sense of "short or stumpy person or thing" is from 1687; that of "potato" is first recorded 1845 in New Zealand English.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

spud (spŭd)
A blunt triangular knife used for removing foreign bodies from the cornea.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
Spud brackets are similar to pile hoops, allowing the bridge to move up and
  down on the spud.
Third, the bacteria release natural antibiotics that stop the fungus from
  infecting the spud and rotting it.
Check ice depth with your ice spud on every step for thin spots.
The effective date of the change will be the date the new well is spud.
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