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Halbkanton (demicanton), central Switzerland, formerly part of the canton of Unterwalden. Drained by the Engelberger Aa (river), it occupies the eastern part of former Unterwalden canton. Nidwalden means "below the forest" and refers to the great forest of Kerns that divided the two demicantons in the Middle Ages. Nidwalden was the first of the two demicantons to ally with Uri and Schwyz in the Everlasting League in 1291, the nucleus of the Swiss Confederation. It acted independently of Obwalden in its revolt against the Helvetic Republic in 1798 and in its refusal to accept the federal constitution of 1815. The latter action resulted in its loss of the abbey lands of Engelberg to Obwalden. A sovereign demicanton since 1803, with its capital at Stans (q.v.), it is administratively independent of Obwalden. Nidwalden offers winter sports and tourist facilities along Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstatter See). The aircraft works at Stans is one of the demicanton's most important industries. Most of the population is German speaking and Roman Catholic. Area 107 square miles (276 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 40,012.