happening, coming, made, or done quickly, without warning, or unexpectedly: a sudden attack.
occurring without transition from the previous form, state, etc.; abrupt: a sudden turn.
impetuous; rash.
Archaic. quickly made or provided.
Obsolete, unpremeditated.
Literary. suddenly.
Obsolete. an unexpected occasion or occurrence.
all of a sudden, without warning; unexpectedly; suddenly. Also, on a sudden.

1250–1300; Middle English sodain (adj. and adv.) < Middle French < Latin subitāneus going or coming stealthily, equivalent to subit(us) sudden, taking by surprise (see subito) + -āneus composite adj. suffix, equivalent to -ān(us) -an + -eus -eous

suddenly, adverb
suddenness, noun

1, 2. unforeseen, unanticipated. Sudden, unexpected, abrupt describe acts, events, or conditions for which there has been no preparation or gradual approach. Sudden refers to the quickness of an occurrence, although the event may have been expected: a sudden change in the weather. Unexpected emphasizes the lack of preparedness for what occurs or appears: an unexpected crisis. Abrupt characterizes something involving a swift adjustment; the effect is often unpleasant, unfavorable, or the cause of dismay: He had an abrupt change in manner. The road came to an abrupt end.

1, 2. gradual, foreseen. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
sudden (ˈsʌdən)
1.  occurring or performed quickly and without warning
2.  marked by haste; abrupt
3.  rare rash; precipitate
4.  archaic an abrupt occurrence or the occasion of such an occurrence (in the phrase on a sudden)
5.  all of a sudden without warning; unexpectedly
6.  poetic chiefly without warning; suddenly
[C13: via French from Late Latin subitāneus, from Latin subitus unexpected, from subīre to happen unexpectedly, from sub- secretly + īre to go]

suddenly (ˈsʌdənlɪ)
quickly and without warning; unexpectedly

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

late 13c., perhaps via Anglo-Fr. sodein, from O.Fr. subdain "immediate, sudden," from V.L. *subitanus, variant of L. subitaneus "sudden," from subitus "come or go up stealthily," from sub "up to" + ire "come, go." Phrase all of a sudden first attested 1680s, earlier of a sudayn (1590s), upon the soden
(1550s). Sudden death, tie-breakers in sports, first recorded 1927; earlier in ref. to coin tosses (1834).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
It is categorised by sudden and dramatic price variations, particularly moving suddenly upwards but decaying only slowly.
Sometimes the only copy of several years' worth of effort is the one that is
  suddenly gone.
Investors have suddenly started taking nanotechnology seriously.
Occasionally, however, stress builds up and is released suddenly in a great
  burst of seismic waves.
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