a pit, well, or the like in which water or other liquid is collected.
Machinery. a chamber at the bottom of a machine, pump, circulation system, etc., into which a fluid drains before recirculation or in which wastes gather before disposal.
a space where water is allowed to collect at the bottom of a shaft or below a passageway.
a pilot shaft or tunnel pushed out in front of a main bore.
British, crankcase.
British Dialect. a swamp, bog, or muddy pool.

1375–1425; late Middle English sompe < Middle Low German or Middle Dutch sump; cognate with German Sumpf; akin to swamp Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
sump (sʌmp)
1.  a receptacle, such as the lower part of the crankcase of an internal-combustion engine, into which liquids, esp lubricants, can drain to form a reservoir
2.  another name for cesspool
3.  mining
 a.  a depression at the bottom of a shaft where water collects before it is pumped away
 b.  the front portion of a shaft or tunnel, ahead of the main bore
4.  dialect (Brit) a muddy pool or swamp
[C17: from Middle Dutch somp marsh; see swamp]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

early 15c., "marsh, morass," from M.Du. somp or M.L.G. sump, from P.Gmc. *sumpaz. Meaning "pit to collect water" is first found 1650s.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Flowing water was rare, and each afternoon they searched urgently for some
  drink-able sump beside which to camp.
During operations, the pit would act as a sump, drawing groundwater into it.
Examine your sump pump and check that it is in good condition and clear of
  debris by filling the sump pit and running the pump.
She thinks the dogs were drinking water out of a sump pump or toilet to stay
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