noun, plural (especially collectively) surgeonfish (especially referring to two or more kinds or species) surgeonfishes.
any tropical, coral-reef fish of the family Acanthuridae, with one or more sharp spines near the base of the tail fin.

1870–75, Americanism; surgeon + fish; so called from the resemblance of its spines to a surgeon's instruments Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
surgeonfish (ˈsɜːdʒənˌfɪʃ)
n , pl -fish, -fishes
any tropical marine spiny-finned fish of the family Acanthuridae, having a compressed brightly coloured body with one or more knifelike spines at the base of the tail

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Example sentences
The corals teem with colorful tropical fish, such as surgeonfish, sergeant
  majors and the coral-munching parrotfish.
The size of the plotted circle for each station describes the number of adult
  surgeonfish observed.
The reefs support numerous butterflyfish and surgeonfish species.
At present, fish populations are dominated by surgeonfish and parrotfish.
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